Aplikasi Teknik Shaping dan Token Ekonomi untuk Meningkatkan Durasi Perilaku On-Task pada Anak dengan ADHD

The Application of Shaping Technique and Token Economy to Increase On-Task Behavior in a Child with ADHD


  • Ida Ayu Gede Kusumaastuti Widihapsari Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Airlangga Surabaya
  • Nono Hery Yoenanto Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Airlangga Surabaya https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1199-6053




perilaku on-task, teknik shaping, ADHD, predominantly inattentive type, token economy


Children with ADHD usually have difficulty on performing on-task behaviors, that relates to their ability of sustaining attention. This problem often results in poor academic performance and academic failure at school. Therefore, intervention is required to increase their on-task behavior that can improve the ability to sustain their attention. Behavior modification with shaping technique has been proved effective for treating ADHD children with attention problem. This study used shaping technique and token economy as the reinforcement technique to increase the duration of on-task behavior. The participant of this study was a 7-year-8-months-old boy who met some criteria of ADHD predominantly inattentive type in DSM V. The research method used is single subject with ABA design. This study used four instruments, namely ADHD-criterion checklist, ABC observation sheet, behavior observation sheet, and reinforcement inventory. The result showed that shaping technique can increase the duration of on-task behavior gradually from 3 until 16 minutes, but decreased until 13 minutes in post-intervention. This increase occurs since the shaping and token system were applied simultaneously, and extraneous variables were controlled.

Keywords: ADHD, predominantly inattentive type, on-task behavior, shaping technique, token economy

Abstrak: Anak-anak dengan ADHD mengalami kesulitan dalam menampilkan perilaku on-task yang berhubungan dengan kemampuan mempertahankan perhatian. Hal ini menyebabkan kinerja akademik yang lemah dan kegagalan akademik di sekolah. Untuk meminimalkan dampak tersebut, intervensi dibutuhkan untuk me-ningkatkan perilaku on-task yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan mempertahankan perhatian. Penelitian ini menggunakan intervensi dengan teknik shaping dan token economy untuk meningkatkan durasi perilaku on-task. Seorang anak laki-laki yang didiagnosa ADHD predominantly inattentive type berdasarkan kriteria DSM V menjadi partisipan. Metode yang digunakan adalah single subject dengan desain ABA, meliputi pre test, intervensi, dan post-test. Empat jenis instrument digunakan untuk koleksi data, yaitu lembar checklist kriteria ADHD, lembar observasi ABC, lembar observasi perilaku, dan reinforcement inventory. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa teknik shaping dapat meningkatkan durasi perilaku secara bertahap dari 3 hingga 16 menit, namun menurun sampai 13 menit saat pasca intervensi. Peningkatan durasi perilaku on-task terjadi karena penerapan teknik shaping dan token economy secara bersamaan, serta adanya kontrol terhadap variabel eksternal yang dapat mengganggu atensi partisipan.

Author Biography

Nono Hery Yoenanto, Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Airlangga Surabaya

Senior Lecturer


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