Prompting dan Positive Reinforcement untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpakaian Pada Anak dengan Intellectual Disability

Authors

  • Ika Agustina Murpratiwi Universitas Indonesia
  • Mita Aswanti Tjakrawiralaksana

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26740/jptt.v8n2.p112-123

Keywords:

Prompting, positive reinforcement, mengancingkan baju

Abstract

Children with intellectual disability (ID) have deficits in their cognitive and adaptive function. One of the important skills of adaptive function which need to be mastered is dressing up, especially wearing buttoned clothes. However, the limitations possessed by children with ID make them always in need of help from others. Based on this condition, it is necessary to provide interventions to improve the skill of buttoning clothes on children with ID. Using single case A-B design, this study evaluates whether behavior modification intervention improve the clothes buttoning skill of a 9-year-old child with moderate ID. The intervention used prompting technique, namely most-to-least prompting accompanied with the provision of positive reinforcement. Prompt techniques expected to be effective in enhancing dressing upskills; additionally, positive reinforcement was also used to keep the child motivated during the intervention sessions. The results showed an increasing trend on mastery of buttoning skill, decreasing trend for prompt intensity, and immediacy of effect influenced by intervention. The results proves that prompting and positive reinforcement technique was effective for improving the childs ability in buttoning clothes independently.  

Key Words: Prompting, positive reinforcement, buttoning clothes

Abstrak: Anak-anak dengan kondisi intellectual disability (ID) mengalami defisit pada fungsi kognitif dan fungsi adaptif. Salah satu keterampilan dari fungsi adaptif yang penting dikuasai adalah berpakaian, terutama memakai baju berkancing.  Akan tetapi, keterbatasan yang dimiliki oleh anak ID membuat mereka selalu membutuhkan bantuan dari orang lain. Berdasarkan kondisi tersebut, perlu dilakukan pemberian intervensi untuk meningkatkan keterampilan mengancingkan baju pada anak ID. Dengan menggunakan single case A-B design, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi apakah intervensi modifikasi perilaku dapat meningkatkan keterampilan mengancingkan baju pada anak berusia 9 tahun dengan ID moderate. Intervensi ini menggunakan teknik prompting, yaitu most to least prompting disertai dengan pemberian positive reinforcement. Teknik prompting diharapkan efektif dalam meningkatkan keterampilan mengancingkan baju, sedangkan positive reinforcement digunakan untuk menjaga motivasi anak selama sesi intervensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan trend pada penguasaan keterampilan mengancingkan baju, penurunan trend untuk intensitas prompt yang digunakan serta immediacy of effect yang dipengaruhi oleh intervensi. Ini membuktikan bahwa teknik prompting dan positive reinforcement efektif meningkatkan keterampilan anak dalam mengancingkan baju secara mandiri.

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Published

2018-03-26
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