The Effectivenes of Modeling Instruction Learning on Students Conceptual Understanding of Rotational Dynamic

Authors

  • Sherly Verlinda Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Sutopo Sutopo Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Eny Latifah Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26740/jpfa.v10n2.p158-172

Keywords:

conceptual understanding, modeling instruction, rotational dynamic

Abstract

Rotational Dynamics is one of the physics topics which is quite difficult for students. Several previous studies showed students difficulties on this topic, one of which is the aspect of students conceptual understanding. Modeling instruction is the effective approach to improve students understanding. This model is in line with constructivist theory and cognitive model theory. This research aimed to examine the effectiveness of modeling instruction that we developed to improve students' conceptual understanding of rigid body mechanics, where the knowledge of particle mechanics serve as anchor or bridging to develop model of rigid body. This research used mixed method with embedded experimental design. It used one group pretest-posttest design and involved 65 students of a high school in Malang as the subject. Data were gathered using test consisting of 17 multiple-choice items with explanation. The students scores were analyzed quantitatively using t-test and N-gain to measure the improvement of students understanding, while the students' reasons were analyzed qualitatively. The results showed the average students score increased from 1.62 to 9.92 with N-gain of 0.54 (in upper medium category). We concluded that the modeling instruction was effective to improve students conceptual understanding.

References

<br clear="all" /><div class="WordSection2"><p align="left">III.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION <strong></strong></p><p>Descriptive statistics of pre-test, post-test and N-Gain<em> </em>scores are presented in Table 2. The average pre-test score was 1.62 and average post-test score was 9.92 with N-Gain<em> </em>was 0.54 in medium upper category. At pre-test<em>, </em>the<em> </em>minimum score was 0 increased to 3 at post-test, while the maximum score at pre-test was 6 increased to 15. Whereas, the achievement of students' understanding in each topic is described in Table 3. N-Gain in topic of torque (N-Gain = 0.75) and Conservation of Angular Momentum (N-Gain<em> </em>= 0.52) are the higher than other topics.</p><p>             Pre-test and post-test score were analyzed using skewness<em> </em>to determine data distribution. Next, a paired sample t-test was performed. It<em> </em>obtained the assigp sig result 0,000 or assymp sig &lt; 0.05 then there is a significant difference between pre-test<em> </em>(before modeling instruction<em> </em>learning) and <em>post-test </em>(after modeling instruction<em> </em>learning). Some previous studies have also found that modelling instruction is effective to improve students understanding (35).</p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong>Table 2. Descriptive Statistics of Pretest and Posttest </strong></p><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td valign="top" width="128"><p align="center"><strong>Descriptive statistics</strong></p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center"><strong>Pretest</strong></p></td><td valign="top" width="64"><p align="center"><strong>Posttest</strong></p></td><td valign="top" width="57"><p align="center"><strong>N-Gain</strong></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="128"><p>Mean</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1.62</p></td><td valign="top" width="64"><p align="center">9.92</p></td><td valign="top" width="57"><p align="center">0.54</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="128"><p>Standard Deviation</p><p>Minimum Score</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1.13</p><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="64"><p align="center">2.40</p><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="57"><p align="center">.17</p><p align="center">.13</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="128"><p>Maximum Score</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">6</p></td><td valign="top" width="64"><p align="center">15</p></td><td valign="top" width="57"><p align="center">.87</p></td></tr></tbody></table><p> Scale: 1-17</p><p>The highest improvement occurred on torque topic (Table. 3). Students understand the need to modify particle dynamics model. The concept of force on particle dynamics cannot be directly used in the rigid body model, so it is changed to torque . Students have been able to explain definition of torque and analyze the direction of objects rotation. Most students do not have trouble distinguishing force and torque. It is one of the difficulties presented in previous study (14). The improvement of students understanding also showed in other topics, such as the moment of inertia and the Conservation of Angular Momentum Law. Understanding about difficulties associated with difficulties in previous studies is very useful to anticipate these difficulties. At posttest, 40 students have been able to apply the parallel axis theorem to calculate the moment of inertia well. It is one of the difficulties in previous study (16). One of the improvement of students understanding in torque topic can be seen in Figure 2. Overview of learning on the topic of the torque was described in the introduction.</p><p> </p></div><strong><br clear="all" /> </strong><div class="WordSection3"><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong>Table 3. Improving Students Understanding in Each Topic</strong></p><div align="center"><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" width="234"><p align="center"><strong>Topics</strong></p></td><td colspan="2" valign="top" width="132"><p align="center"><strong>Average value</strong></p></td><td rowspan="2" width="66"><p align="center"><strong><em>N-Gain</em></strong></p></td><td rowspan="2" width="111"><p align="center"><strong>Category</strong></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center"><strong><em>Pretest</em></strong></p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center"><strong><em>Posttest</em></strong></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="234"><p>Torque</p><p>Moment of Inertia and Newton's Law</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.20</p><p align="center">0.01</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.80</p><p align="center">0.50</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.75</p><p align="center">0.49</p></td><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">High</p><p align="center">Upper Medium</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="234"><p>Conservation of Angular Momentum</p><p>Rolling Motion</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.06</p><p align="center">0.08</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.55</p><p align="center">0.42</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.52</p><p align="center">0.37</p></td><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">Upper Medium</p><p align="center">Lower Medium</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="234"><p>Equilibrium</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.12</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.49</p></td><td valign="top" width="66"><p align="center">0.42</p></td><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">Lower Medium</p></td></tr></tbody></table></div><p>        Scale:0-1</p><p align="center"> </p><table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td><div><ol><li>There are some statements about torque:</li></ol><p align="left">(1)    A large force always produces a large torque</p><p align="left">(2)    A large force Gaya never produces a zero-torque</p><p align="left">(3)    The position of rotation axis affect torque produced by a force</p><p>The <strong><em>true statement</em></strong> is ¦</p><ol><li>(1)</li><li>(2)</li><li>(3)</li><li>(1) and (2)</li><li>(1) (2) and (3)</li></ol></div></td></tr></tbody></table><br clear="ALL" /> <strong>Figure 2. Question Number 2</strong><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong>Table 4. Pretest-Prosttest Cross Tabulation of Number 2</strong></p><table width="499" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" width="111"><p align="center">Pretest</p></td><td colspan="6" valign="top" width="284"><p align="center">Student Answers During Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">Total Pretest</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">B</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">C *</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">D</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">N / A</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center"> </p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">3</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">B</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">3</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">C *</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">4</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">D</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">21</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">10</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">31</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">15</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">16</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">N / A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">5</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">8</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">Total Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">4 6</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">19</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">65</p></td></tr></tbody></table><p> </p></div><br clear="all" /><div class="WordSection4"><p>At the pretest, most students answered incorrectly. It is normal because the students have not never studied about torque. Students understanding improved significantly. In number 2 (Table 4), students were able to distinguish force and torque (14). However, 19 students still answered incorrectly by choosing the answer choices E.</p><p>Another interesting finding in this study is the improvement of students' understanding on some physics concepts such as calculate the moment of inertia using parallel axis theorem, solve problem using Conservation of Momentum Angle Law and analyze objects using equilibrium concept.</p></div><strong><br clear="all" /> </strong><div class="WordSection5"><p align="center"> </p><table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td><div><p>A cylinder rod with a mass <em>m</em> and a length  rotates with rotation axis through center of mass O has a moment of inertia .  If the rotation axis is shifted  to P or Q, then the large of moment of inertia  and   respectively is ¦</p><p> </p><ol><li></li><li>   </li><li></li><li> dan</li><li>No correct answer</li></ol></div></td></tr></tbody></table><br clear="ALL" /> <strong>Figure 3. Question Number 8</strong><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong>Table 4. Pretest-Prosttest Cross Tabulation of Number 8</strong></p><table width="499" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" width="111"><p align="center"><em>Pretest</em></p></td><td colspan="6" valign="top" width="284"><p align="center">Student Answers During Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">Total Pretest</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">B *</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">C</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">D</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">N / A</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center"> </p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">2</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">B *</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">0</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">C</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">3</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">D</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">5</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">12</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">2</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">N / A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">30</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">12</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">46</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">Total Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">40</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">4</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">17</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">65</p></td></tr></tbody></table></div><br clear="all" /><div class="WordSection6"><p> </p></div><br clear="all" /><div class="WordSection7"><p>In question number 8, student was expected to apply the parallel axis theorem to determine moment of inertia in the system when rotation axis shifted to outside of axis that passes through the center of mass. The correct choice is B. Before learning, most students could not answer, this was understandable, because they had not obtained learning about this topic. Whereas, 12 students chose D.</p><p>After modelling instruction<em> </em>learning<em>, </em>number of students who answered correctly increased to 40 students, whereas 17 students chose D, 4 students chose C, 3 students chose A and 1 student did not answer. Students who choose option D assumed that when the axis shifts to the right  and when the axis shifts to the left   . This students improvement was supported by learning in the classroom. Students observed a demonstration that initiates the need to build a moment of inertia model.</p><p>While students who answered incorrectly were triggered by the resources before learning that the right direction is positive in vector quantity and the left direction is negative in vector quantity.</p><p>Students who answered option A assumed that the magnitude of moment of inertia is the same wherever the axis was. Students' understanding increased significantly on topic of Conservation of Angular Momentum Law. Figure 4 presents questions about Conservation of Angular Momentum Law. At pretest, 39 students (60%) chose B. After modelling instruction learning<em>, </em>the<em> </em>number of students who answered correctly increased significantly from 5 students to 45 students (70%). But 20 other students still answered incorrectly, 9 students chose A, 5 students chose B, 3 students chose C and 3 students chose E.</p></div><br clear="all" /><div class="WordSection8"><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"> </p><table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td><div><p> </p><p> </p><p>13. A merry-go-round moves with a certain angular velocity. A child on merry-go-round moves from the center (A) to the edge (B). How does it affect to angular speed of merry go round?</p><p>A. Remain, because of conservation of angular momentum law</p><p>B. Increase, because torque increase</p><p>C. Decrease, because friction force decrease</p><p>D. Decrease, because moment of inertia</p><p>E. No correct answer</p><p> </p></div></td></tr></tbody></table><strong>Figure 4. Question Number 13</strong><p align="center"> </p><table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td><div><p><strong>Side view</strong></p></div></td></tr></tbody></table><table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td><div><p><strong>Top view</strong></p></div></td></tr></tbody></table> <p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p></div><strong><br clear="all" /> </strong> <strong><br clear="all" /> </strong><br clear="ALL" /><div class="WordSection10"><p align="center"><strong>Table 6. Pre-test Posttest Cross Tabulation<em> </em>of<em> </em>Number 13</strong></p></div><em><br clear="all" /> </em><div class="WordSection11"><table width="499" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" width="111"><p align="center">Pretest</p></td><td colspan="6" valign="top" width="284"><p align="center">Student Answers During Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">Total Pretest</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">B</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">C</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">D *</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">N / A</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center"> </p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">8</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">1 0</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">B</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">5</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">30</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">3 9</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">C</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">3</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">D *</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">5</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">0</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">N / A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">8</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">Total Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">9</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">5</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">45</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">65</p></td></tr></tbody></table></div><br clear="all" /> <br clear="all" /><div class="WordSection13"><p><strong>Students Difficulties in Conservation of Energy Law </strong></p></div><br clear="all" /><div class="WordSection14"><p>Students' understanding on Conservation of Energy Law was good enough, but it needs to be improved. In problem number 15 (Figure 5), the student was expected to understand Conservation of Mechanical Energy Law in Rotational Motion and to use this concept to compare speeds of various objects in inclined plane. The correct answer is C. Rolling motion which does not work the kinetic friction force, applies the Conservation of Mechanical Energy Law.</p><p>However, objects that moves sliding like a beam, also applies Conservation of Mechanical Energy Law. Mechanical energy in solid and hollow cylinders is converted into translational and rotational kinetic energy. The mechanical energy in the beam is only converted into translational kinetic energy, so the translational velocity  on sliding beam in inclined plane is the greatest. <strong></strong></p></div><strong><br clear="all" /> </strong><div class="WordSection15"><p><strong> </strong></p></div><strong><br clear="all" /> </strong><div class="WordSection16"><p align="center"><strong>Figure 5. Question Number 15</strong></p><p> </p><table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td><div><p>A solid cylinder (I), a hollow cylinder (II) with mass <em>m</em> moves rolling on a slope with a height <em>h</em> and a beam (III) that is lubricated using oil with mass <em>m</em>. It moves on inclined plane with height <em>h</em>. Which is the most immediate object to the bottom of slope? ( )</p><ol><li>I</li><li>II</li><li>III</li><li>I and II</li><li>No correct answer</li></ol><p> </p></div></td></tr></tbody></table><table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td> </td></tr></tbody></table><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p> </p><p> </p><p> </p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong> </strong></p><br clear="ALL" /><p align="center"><strong>Table 6. Pretest Posttest Cross Tabulation<em> </em>of Number 15</strong></p><table width="499" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td rowspan="2" width="111"><p align="center">Pretest</p></td><td colspan="6" valign="top" width="284"><p align="center">Student Answers During Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">Total Pretest</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">B</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">C*</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">D</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">N/A</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center"> </p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">4</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">5</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">12</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">B</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">15</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">16</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">32</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">C*</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">4</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">4</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">D</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">1</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">7</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">E</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">0</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">N/A</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">3</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">2</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">10</p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" width="111"><p align="center">Total Posttest</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">21</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">5</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">30</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">9</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="47"><p align="center">0</p></td><td valign="top" width="104"><p align="center">65</p></td></tr></tbody></table><p>           </p></div><br clear="all" /><p>At the pre-test, most students chose option B, which the hollow cylinder has the greatest translational velocity. Students assume that the lighter the object, the smaller the frictional force so the object can roll faster.</p><p>After modeling instruction learning, students built the physics model of the Conservation of Energy Law in rolling motion. Students who answered correctly increasing to 30 students (46%) by choosing C while the other students (54%) still answered the wrong choice, 21 students (32%) chose answer A, 5 students (8%) answered choice B and 9 students (14%) answered choice D.</p><p>The student who answered wrong are triggered by students' thoughts "hollow cylinders have the lightest mass so it have small frictional force and roll faster" and "solid cylinders have greater mass so the downward force is greater and the rolling motion is faster". However, the assumptions of these students may not always reflect the different students' thoughts.</p><p>Some students with the correct answer (choose C) explain the reason œthe inclined plane is sleek. Students are still understanding that œin the particle model, friction can cause objects move more slowly. Thus, the inclined plane will make the beam slide faster. Students who answered correctly with this reason will be difficult to separate from particle model concept. Whereas, in the rigid body model, the absence of kinetic friction force is a requirement for conservation of energy. In general, students understanding has increased in topic of Conservation of Energy Law in rolling motion.</p><p>           Most students answered correctly. Modeling instruction has a positive influence to initiate the need to build a model of the Conservation of Angular Momentum Law. It reinforced students understanding and coherence of physics naturally (23).  Modelling instruction is also encouraging the student to be more confident (36). So, modeling instruction is<em> </em>effective to increase students' understanding on topic rotational dynamics and equilibrium of rigid body (21,22). The students improvement from 1.62 to 9 with <em>N-Gain </em>= 0.54 is in medium upper category (37). The highest increase is on topic of torque. Students' understanding has also increased significantly on topic of moment of inertia and the Conservation of Angular Momentum Law. Students can distinguish the magnitude of force and torque, apply the concept of moment of inertia and parallel axis theorem and apply the concept of the of Conservation of Angular Momentum Law. Modelling instruction<em> </em>learning always begins learning with revisit concepts to initiate the need build new models. It increases awareness of the coherence of physics.</p><p>However, some students still had difficulties in applying Conservation of Energy Law in rolling motion. Students difficulties were caused by students' reasoning that came from concepts that they build themselves based on their experiences (1). Students had difficulty in using their understanding in physics to solve problems and students use their resources in unsuitable contexts.</p><p> </p><p><strong>IV.CONCLUSION</strong></p><p>Based on result, modeling instruction had succeeded significantly increasing students' understanding on topic of rotational dynamic and equilibrium of rigid bodies. Different test conducted between the results of the pre-test (mean = 1.62) and post-test (mean = 9.92) shows that there are significant differences after students are given modeling instruction learning. Improvement of students understanding has N-gain 0.54 in upper medium category. Students participate in learning enthusiastically, increase awareness of the coherence of physics and can draw diagrams well. However, research still needs to be improved to obtain a greater N-gain value. 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2020-12-31

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Verlinda, S., Sutopo, S. and Latifah, E. (2020) “The Effectivenes of Modeling Instruction Learning on Students Conceptual Understanding of Rotational Dynamic”, Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya (JPFA), 10(2), pp. 158–172. doi: 10.26740/jpfa.v10n2.p158-172.

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