Design of Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Medical Imaging Application


  • Daffa Mahendra Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
  • Randy Ivanal Hakim Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
  • Endarko Endarko Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember



Microwave Imaging, Specific Absorption Rate, Vivaldi Antenna


The microwave imaging (MWI) system in medical applications is commonly used to detect abnormalities in the human body. The purpose of this study was to design an Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna (AVA) for medical imaging applications using MWI. The research method used is based on the AVA design simulation of the CST Studio Suite 2019 application using time and frequency domain methods, which has dimensions of 60x40 mm2 with an antenna structure that works in the frequency range of 6.3-9.6 GHz, the impedance for bandwidth is -10 dB, using Flame Retardant-4 (FR-4) thickness 1.6 mm (= 4.3, tan δ = 0.025) as substrate material. A linear array of antennas was utilized in the simulation, either with or without a phantom. The phantom options include an absence of a phantom (only antennas), a cube-shaped water phantom, and a water phantom containing an anomaly. The result of the simulation on the AVA design produces a bandwidth of 41.61%, a gain of 5.16 dB, a return loss of -26.73 dB, a Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value of 0.26 W/kg and a graph of S-parameters (S21). It can be concluded that the MWI system using the AVA design in this study has the potential to properly detect the presence of anomalies.


Ameer W, Awan D, Bashir S, and Waheed A. Use of Directional UWB Antenna for Lung Tumour Detection. Proceeding of International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences (ICACS). Lahore: IEEE. 2019; 1–5. DOI:

Lu Y, Fang C and Ye X. Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Designed for Microwave Imaging System. 2019 International Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Symposium - China (ACES). Nanjing, China: IEEE. 2019; 1–2. DOI:

Islam MT, Mahmud MZ, Islam MT, Kibria S, and Samsuzzaman M. A Low Cost and Portable Microwave Imaging System for Breast Tumor Detection Using UWB Directional Antenna Array. Scientific Reports. 2019; 9(1): 15491. DOI:

Salleh A, Yang CC, Singh M, Singh J, and Islam MT. Development of Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Microwave Brain Stroke Imaging System. International Journal of Engineering & Technology. 2019; 8(3): 162–168. DOI:

Samsuzzaman Md, et al. A 16‐modified Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Array for Microwave‐based Breast Tumor Imaging Applications. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. 2019; 61(9): 2110–2118. DOI:

Council of the European Union. 1999/519/EC: Council Recommendation of 12 July 1999 on the Limitation of Exposure of the General Public to Electromagnetic Fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz. Luxemburg: EUR-Lex. 1999; 59–70. Available from:

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules Regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission System. Washigton DC: FCC; 2002. Available from:

Ahmed A. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Simulated for Square Patch Antenna of Head Tissues. Engineering and Technology Journal. 2018; 36(5A): 209–513. DOI:

Prakash P and Srimathveeravalli G. Principles and Technologies for Electromagnetic Energy Based Therapies. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2021.

McMillan RW and Bohlander RA. An Investigation of Millimeter Wave Propagation in the Atmosphere: Measurement Program. Research Report. Atlanta: Georgia Tech Research Institute; 1987. Available from:

Gazit E. Improved Design of the Vivaldi Antenna. IEE Proceedings H (Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation). 1988; 135(2): 89-92. DOI:

Parveen F and Wahid P. Design of Miniaturized Antipodal Vivaldi Antennas for Wideband Microwave Imaging of the Head. Electronics. 2022; 11(14): 2258. DOI:

Özmen H and Kurt MB. Radar-Based Microwave Breast Cancer Detection System with a High-Performance Ultrawide Band Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna. Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 2021; 29(5): 2326–2345. DOI:

Wang J, Liu J, Hou K and Li Y. A Novel Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Far-Field Detection. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications. 2023; 164: 154626. DOI:

Balaji A, Karthi J, Chinnamal V, Malarvizhi C, and Vanaja S. A Unique Technique to Improve the Performance of Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Microwave Imaging Application. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2021; 1055(1): 012100. DOI:

Rafique U, Pisa S, Cicchetti R, Testa O, and Cavagnaro M. Ultra-Wideband Antennas for Biomedical Imaging Applications: A Survey. Sensors. 2022; 22(9): 3230. DOI:

Wang M, et al. A Compact Slot-Loaded Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for a Microwave Imaging System to Monitor Liver Microwave Thermal Ablation. IEEE Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation. 2022; 3: 700–708. DOI:

Dixit AS and Kumar S. A Survey of Performance Enhancement Techniques of Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna. IEEE Access. 2020; 8: 45774–45796. DOI:

Hasim NS, et al. A Slotted UWB Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Microwave Imaging Application. Progress In Electromagnetics Research M. 2019; 80: 35–43. DOI:

Lalitha K and Manjula J. Non-Invasive Microwave Head Imaging to Detect Tumors and to Estimate Their Size and Location. Physics in Medicine. 2022; 13: 100047. DOI:

Tangwachirapan S, Sawangsri P, Pinitkiatisakul P, Thongdit P, and Thaiwirot W. Breast Cancer Detection Based Microwave Imaging Using Single Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna. Research, Invention, and Innovation Congress: Innovative Electricals and Electronics (RI2C). Bangkok: IEEE. 2022; 97–100. DOI:

Guruswamy S, Chinniah R and Thangavelu K. A Printed Compact UWB Vivaldi Antenna with Hemi Cylindrical Slots and Directors for Microwave Imaging Applications. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications. 2019; 110: 152870. DOI:

Alageea R and Assalemb A. Brain Cancer Detection Using U-Shaped Slot VIVALDI Antenna and Confocal Radar Based Microwave Imaging Algorithm. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS). 2020; 66(1): 1–13. Available from:

Birwal A, Patel K and Singh S. A Directional Wide-Band Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Imaging Applications. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C. 2022; 127: 227–237. DOI:

Asok AO, J. GNS and Dey S. Non‐invasive Breast Tumor Detection with Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Using Monostatic Approach. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering. 2022; 32(12): e23539. DOI:

Jamlos MA, Mustafa WA, Khairunizam W, Zunaidi, I, Razlan ZM, and Shahriman AB. Tumor Detection via Specific Absorption Rate Technique Using Ultra-Wideband Antenna. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019; 557(1): 012024. DOI:

Susila M, et al. Investigations of Specific Absorption Rate and Temperature Variations for an UWB Antenna for Wireless Applications. Progress In Electromagnetics Research M. 2019; 78: 83–92. DOI:

Balanis CA. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. New York: John Wiley; 2016.

Paul L and Islam MM. A Super Wideband Directional Compact Vivaldi Antenna for Lower 5G and Satellite Applications. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation. 2021; 2021: 8933103. DOI:

Chiappe M and Gragnani GL. Vivaldi Antennas for Microwave Imaging: Theoretical Analysis and Design Considerations. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 2006; 55(6): 1885–1891. DOI:

Sohani B, et al. Detection of Haemorrhagic Stroke in Simulation and Realistic 3-D Human Head Phantom Using Microwave Imaging. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. 2020; 61: 102001. DOI:

Yazid MYI, et al. A Sierpinski Arrowhead Curve Slot Vivaldi Antenna for Microwave Head Imaging System. IEEE Access. 2023; 11: 32335–32347. DOI:

Hekal S, Asaad FE, Mansour HM and Shehata GS. Microwave Imaging System for Breast Cancer Detection Using Merit Toolbox. 40th National Radio Science Conference (NRSC). Giza: IEEE. 2023; 327–336. DOI:

Wang M, Crocco L and Cavagnaro M. Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna with Ceramic Cone Lens for Biomedical Microwave Imaging Systems. 15th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). Dusselford, Germany: IEEE. 2021; 1–5. DOI:




How to Cite

Mahendra, D., Hakim, R. I. and Endarko, E. (2023) “Design of Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for Medical Imaging Application”, Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya (JPFA), 13(2), pp. 132–145. doi: 10.26740/jpfa.v13n2.p132-145.



Abstract views: 185 , PDF Downloads: 107