DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26740/jp.v2n1.p56-64

Metakognitif pada Proses Belajar Anak dalam Kajian Neurosains

Ruqoyyah Fitri

Abstract


Abstrak

Kajian ini bertujuan menguraikan perkembangan metakognitif pada anak usia dini yang dikembangkan melalui bermain dan dikaitkan dengan teori neurosains agar dapat dipahami bagaimana anak belajar sesuai dengan cara kerja otak. Pada hakikatnya bermain anak adalah proses belajarnya. Belajar yang dimaksud di sini adalah aktifitas bermain yang diarahkan untuk menuntaskan tugas perkembangan anak usia dini.dalam hal ini adalah perkembangan kognitif. Pada umumnya kemampuan kognitif individu berkembang secara bertahap. Perkembangan kognitif sangat erat kaitannya dengan kemampuan berpikir. Keterampilan berpikir tersebut perlu dilatih dan terus ditingkatkan agar anak bisa menggunakan proses berpikirnya untuk menyelesaikan masalah belajarnya. Meningkatkan proses berpikir pada dasarnya adalah mengembangkan metakognitif. Proses metakognitif anak dilatihkan melalui kegiatan bermain mulai dari yang sederhana sampai ke yang lebih rumit. Keterampilan metakognitif berkaitan erat denganneurosains yang membahas tentang kinerja otak. Terjadinya proses berpikir tingkat tinggi yang merupakan keterampilan metakognitif seseorang adalah tugas dari bagian depan otak yang disebut dengan lobus prefrontal. Belahan otak bagian depan ini dikenal sebagai pusat kontrol eksekutif atau pusat terjadinya berpikir tingkat tinggi. Juga tempat upaya pemecahan masalah, regulasi demensi emosi, penentu watak dan karakter serta kepribadian seseorang. Dalam hal ini guru dan orang tua harus memperhatikan beberapa masa peka anak yang mendukung proses metakognitif sebagai pedoman pengelolaan pembelajaran di kelas diantaranya; (1) kontrol emosi, dengan menciptkan suasana emosi senang, (2) kontrol kognitif, dengan memilih metode yang mendukung kinerja otak, dan (3) kontrol motorik,  dengan melibatkan gerak fisik dalam proses pembelajaran.

 

Abstract

The aim of this study outlines the metacognitive development in early childhood developed through play and is associated with the theory of neuroscience in order to understand how children learn according to how the brain works. In essence, a child's play is learning. Learn what is meant here is the play activities that are directed to complete the task of early childhood development. in this case is of cognitive development. In general, the individual's cognitive abilities develop gradually. Cognitive development is closely associated with the ability to think. The thinking skills need to be trained and continue to be improved so that children can use their thinking process to solve the problem of learning. Improving the thinking is essentially developing metacognitive. Metacognitive processes trained children through play activities ranging from simple to more complex. Metacognitive skills closely related to neuroscience that discusses the performance of the brain. The occurrence of high-level thought processes which constitute metacognitive skills a person is the job of the front part of the brain called the prefrontal lobe. These parts of the forebrain known as the executive control center or the center of the high-level thinking. Also the problem-solving effort, emotion regulation demensi, decisive character and the character and personality of a person. In this case the teachers and parents should pay attention to some sensitive period of child support metacognitive process as classroom management guidelines including; (1) control of emotions, happy emotions by creating an atmosphere, (2) cognitive control, by choosing a method that supports brain performance, and (3) motor control, involving the physical movement in the learning process.


Keywords


metkognitif; proses belajar; neurosains

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