Perceived Online Learning and Teacher Immediacy during the Covid-19 Pandemic


  • Danang Tandyonomanu Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya
  • Anam Miftakhul Huda Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya
  • Tsuroyya Tsuroyya Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya
  • Gilang Gusti Aji Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya



teacher immediacy, perceived online learning, students, covid-19


The study aims at describing teacher immediacy within online learning. Teacher immediacy refers to using verbal and nonverbal symbols to reduce physical and psychological gaps between teachers and students. Immediacy is claimed to improve student motivation in learning. The study employed a mixed method of focus group discussions and a survey of selected senior high schools from multistage random sampling. Results show that perceived online learning is identical to incomprehensible, overload assignments, a shift of the teacher’s role to technology, peer learning, and off-class tutorial participation. On the other hand, online learning is perceived as flexibility in time as students can manage different activities simultaneously. Findings from the survey indicate immediacy negatively influences a shift in teachers’ role to technology, whereas self-disclosure has a positive effect. The results somehow reflect a debatable claim of teacher immediacy impact within the Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) context. Future examinations on the use of multiple technology platforms in forming immediacy are necessary to better comprehend the teacher’s role in online learning

Author Biographies

Anam Miftakhul Huda, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya

Departement of Communication Science

Faculty os Social and Law

Tsuroyya Tsuroyya , Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya

Department of Communication Science

Faculty of Social and Law

Gilang Gusti Aji, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya

Department of Communication Scien

Fakulty of Social dan Law


Ahmed, Qanta A., and Ziad A. Memish. 2020. “The Cancellation of Mass Gatherings (MGs)? Decision Making in the Time of COVID-19.” Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 101631. doi 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101631.

Ai, Tran Huu, and Luu Hoang Giang. 2018. “The Role of Teacher Immediacy As a Motivational Factor in Student Learning.” The EUrASEANs: Journal on Global Socio-Economic Dynamics 6(6(13)):54–63. doi: 10.35678/2539-5645.6(13).2018.54-63.

Almahasees, Zakaria, Khaled Mohsen, and Mohammad Omar Amin. 2021. “Faculty’s and Students’ Perceptions of Online Learning During COVID-19.” Frontiers in Education 6(May):1–10. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2021.638470.

Andersen, Janis F. 1979. “Teacher Immediacy as a Predictor of Teaching Effectiveness.” Annals of the International Communication Association 3(1):543–59. doi: 10.1080/23808985.1979.11923782.

Angeles, Miguel Barreda-, Sophie Horneber, and Tilo Hartmann. 2023. “Computers & Education : X Reality Easily Applicable Social Virtual Reality and Social Presence in Online Higher Education during the Covid-19 Pandemic : A Qualitative Study.” 2(April). doi: 10.1016/j.cexr.2023.100024.

Azeem, Asmaa, Nisar Abid, and Tariq Hussain. 2021. “Examining the Correlation between University Students’ Perceived Teacher Immediacy and Their Motivation.” Psychology and Education Journal 58(1):5809–20. doi: 10.17762/pae.v58i1.1990.

Baker, Jason D. 2004. “An Investigation of Relationships among Instructor Immediacy and Affective and Cognitive Learning in the Online Classroom.” Internet and Higher Education 7(1):1–13. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2003.11.006.

Basch, Corey H., Grace Clarke Hillyer, Zoe Meleo- Erwin, Jan Mohlma, Alison Cosgrove, and Nasia Quinones. 2020. “News Coverage of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Missed Opportunities to Promote Health Sustaining Behaviors.” Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.idh.2020.05.001.

Beaunoyer, Elisabeth, Sophie Dupéré, and Matthieu J. Guitton. 2020. “COVID-19 and Digital Inequalities: Reciprocal Impacts and Mitigation Strategies.” Computers in Human Behavior 111(May). doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106424.

Bergdahl, Nina. 2022. “Computers & Education.” Computers & Education 188(May):104561. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2022.104561.

Bradley-dorsey, Martha, Dennis Beck, Robert Maranto, Bich Tran, and Thomas Clark. 2022. “Is Cyber like In-Person ? Relationships between Student-Student , Student-Teacher Interaction and Student Achievement in Cyber Schools.” Computers and Education Open 3(December 2021):100101. doi: 10.1016/j.caeo.2022.100101.

Butt, Sameera, Asif Mahmood, Saima Saleem, Shah Ali Murtaza, Sana Hassan, and Edina Molnár. 2023. “The Contribution of Learner Characteristics and Perceived Learning to Students’ Satisfaction and Academic Performance during COVID-19.” Sustainability 15(2):1348. doi: 10.3390/su15021348.

Cayanus, Jacob L., Matthew M. Martin, and Alan K. Goodboy. 2009. “The Relation between Teacher Self-Disclosure and Student Motives to Communicate.” Communication Research Reports 26(2):105–13. doi: 10.1080/08824090902861523.

Chakraborty, Misha, and Fredrick Muyia Nafukho. 2015. “Strategies for Virtual Learning Environments: Focusing on Teaching Presence and Teaching Immediacy.” Internet Learning 4(1). doi: 10.18278/il.4.1.1.

Derks, Daantje, Agneta H. Fischer, and Arjan E. R. Bos. 2007. “The Role of Emotion in Computer-Mediated Communication: A Review.” Computers in Human Behavior 24(3):766–85. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2007.04.004.

Estepp, C. M., and T. G. Toberts. 2015. “Teacher_immediacy_and_professo.” NACTA Journal 59(2):155–63.

Finset, Arnstein, Hayden Bosworth, Phyllis Butow, Pål Gulbrandsen, Robert L. Hulsman, Arwen H. Pieterse, Richard Street, Robin Tschoetschel, and Julia van Weert. 2020. “Effective Health Communication – a Key Factor in Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Patient Education and Counseling 103(5):873–76. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2020.03.027.

Frymier, Ann Bainbridge. 1993. “The Impact of Teacher Immediacy on Students’ Motivation: Is It the Same for All Students?” Communication Quarterly 41(4):454–64. doi: 10.1080/01463379309369905.

Gherghel, Claudia, Shoko Yasuda, and Yosuke Kita. 2023. “Computers & Education Interaction during Online Classes Fosters Engagement with Learning and Self-Directed Study Both in the First and Second Years of the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Computers & Education 200(March):104795. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2023.104795.

Gorham, Joan. 1988. “The Relationship between Verbal Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and Student Learning.” Communication Education 37(1):40. doi: 10.1080/03634528809378702.

Hazzam, Joe, and Stephen Wilkins. 2023. “Computers & Education The Influences of Lecturer Charismatic Leadership and Technology Use on Student Online Engagement , Learning Performance , and Satisfaction.” Computers & Education 200(April):104809. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2023.104809.

Iaconelli, Ryan, and Eric M. Anderman. 2021. “Classroom Goal Structures and Communication Style: The Role of Teacher Immediacy and Relevance-Making in Students’ Perceptions of the Classroom.” Social Psychology of Education 24(1):37–58. doi: 10.1007/s11218-021-09609-y.

Liu, Yue, Xiao Sun, Pengjia Zhang, Peng Han, Haiyan Shao, and Xia Duan. 2023. “Heliyon Generation Z Nursing Students ’ Online Learning Experiences during COVID-19 Epidemic : A Qualitative Study.” Heliyon 9(4):e14755. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e14755.

Messman, Susan J., and Jennifer Jones-Corley. 2001. “Effects of Communication Environment, Immediacy, and Communication Apprehension on Cognitive and Affective Learning.” Communication Monographs 68(2):184–200. doi: 10.1080/03637750128054.

Roberts, Amy, and Denise Friedman. 2013. “The Impact of Teacher Immediacy on Student Participation: An Objective Cross-Disciplinary Examination.” International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 25(1):38–46.

Rogers, Patricia, Gary Berg, Judith Boettcher, Carole Howard, Karen Schenk, Kristin Klinger, Carole Coulson Typesetter, Sean Woznicki, Amanda Appicello, Larissa Vinci, Mike Brehm, Jen Henderson, Elizabeth Duke, Jamie Snavely, Carole Coulson, Jeff Ash, Chris Hrobak, and Lisa Tosheff. 2009. “Encyclopedia of Distance Learning Second Edition Volume I A-Des.” P. 1212 in Vol. III.

Schutt, Maria, Brock S. Allen, and Mark A. Laumakis. 2009. “The Effects of Instructor Immediacy Behaviors in Online Learning Environments.” 10(2):135–48.

Sidi, Yael, Tamar Shamir-inbal, and Yoram Eshet-alkalai. 2023. “Computers & Education From Face-to-Face to Online : Teachers ’ Perceived Experiences in Online Distance Teaching during the Covid-19 Pandemic.” Computers & Education 201(May):104831. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2023.104831.

Sohrabi, Catrin, Zaid Alsafi, Niamh O’Neill, Mehdi Khan, Ahmed Kerwan, Ahmed Al-Jabir, Christos Iosifidis, and Riaz Agha. 2020. “World Health Organization Declares Global Emergency: A Review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19).” International Journal of Surgery 76(February):71–76. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.034.

Stewart, Mary K. 2021. “Social Presence in Online Writing Instruction : Distinguishing between Presence , Comfort , Attitudes , and Learning.” Computers and Composition 62:102669. doi: 10.1016/j.compcom.2021.102669.

Tandyonomanu, Danang, Puspita Sari Sukardani, and Awang Dharmawan. 2021. “Online Lectures Student Satisfaction During the Covid 19 Pandemic.” 603(Icss):174–78.

Teo, Timothy, Saeed Khazaie, and Ali Derakhshan. 2022. “Computers & Education Exploring Teacher Immediacy- ( Non ) Dependency in the Tutored Augmented Reality Game-Assisted Flipped Classrooms of English for Medical Purposes Comprehension among the Asian Students.” 179(December 2021).

Teven, Jason J., and Trudy L. Hanson. 2004. “The Impact of Teacher Immediacy and Perceived Caring on Teacher Competence and Trustworthiness.” Communication Quarterly 52(1):39–53. doi: 10.1080/01463370409370177.

Wang, Yongliang, Ziwen Pan, and Mingzhe Wang. 2023. “Heliyon The Moderating Effect of Participation in Online Learning Activities and Perceived Importance of Online Learning on EFL Teachers ’ Teaching Ability.” Heliyon 9(3):e13890. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13890.

Wei, Xiaomei, Nadira Saab, and Wilfried Admiraal. 2023. “Do Learners Share the Same Perceived Learning Outcomes in MOOCs ? Identifying the Role of Motivation , Perceived Learning Support , Learning Engagement , and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.” The Internet and Higher Education 56(July 2021):100880. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2022.100880.

Wendt, Jillian L., and Jennifer Courduff. 2018. “The Relationship between Teacher Immediacy, Perceptions of Learning, and Computer-Mediated Graduate Course Outcomes among Primarily Asian International Students Enrolled in an U.S. University.” International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 15(1). doi: 10.1186/s41239-018-0115-0.

Woods, Robert H., and Jason D. Baker. 2004. “Interaction and Immediacy in Online Learning.” International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 5(2). doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v5i2.186.




How to Cite

Tandyonomanu, D., Huda, A. M., Tsuroyya , T., & Aji, G. G. (2023). Perceived Online Learning and Teacher Immediacy during the Covid-19 Pandemic. The Journal of Society and Media, 7(1), 154–173.
Abstract views: 67 , PDF Downloads: 81

Most read articles by the same author(s)